Overview of Agriculture Component in GTP II

GTP I focused on accelerating growth in production of traditional crops. It has done so by promoting the adoption of improved technologies by smallholder farmers, and by increasing investment in rural infrastructure, particularly for irrigation and improved watershed management. It also emphasized the need to ensure food security across all sections of Ethiopian society.

During GTP II, while accelerated growth in agricultural productivity continues to be an important area of focus, a gradual shift in emphasis towards high value crops and livestock production is being envisaged. This is to be complemented by the establishment of a market system that benefits farmers and non-farm rural actors. Similarly, natural resources development also continues to be an important area of emphasis.

However, the GTP II goes beyond this to promote more sustainable farming practices and enhanced conservation of indigenous biodiversity resources as well as livelihood development from natural resources (forestry, rehabilitated lands, water resources, etc.). A third area of emphasis is food security that continues to be a challenge. Finally, specific focus is placed on building institutional capacity for implementing and monitoring agricultural development. An underlying principle of the GTP II for agricultural development is that environmental sustainability must be maintained, climate change adaptation and mitigation should be promoted, and growth should be broad based and inclusive, with a particular focus on engaging women, youth and poor households.

GTP II has been developed around the following five high-level objectives for the agriculture sector:

1. Accelerated growth in agricultural production with a gradual shift towards high value commodities

2. Sustainable, broad-based, and inclusive agricultural development

3. Elimination of national food gap (and ultimately, contribution by the agriculture sector to national capital formation)

4. Establishment of a market system that benefits farmers and non-farm actors

5. Improved implementation capacity: institutional and human resource (attitudes, skills, competency)
These high level objectives are to be achieved through four strategic objectives within the agriculture sector and complementary objectives in the trade and industry, finance, infrastructure, roads, water and energy sectors.

i. Increased and market oriented crop production and improved productivity focusing on strategic crops: To promote increased crop production, adoption of improved crop technologies and practices by smallholder farmers will be promoted. Additionally,
increased investment in medium and large scale commercial farming with enhanced linkages to smallholders through out-grower schemes and contract farming arrangements is envisaged. With a view of producing for the market, the GTP II also plans for enhanced services for testing and certification regarding chemical use and resulting residues, enhanced cooperative capacity and efficiency, and reduced pre- and post-harvest losses.

ii. Increased livestock production and productivity: Promoting the adoption of improved livestock husbandry practices/ technologies, feed production technologies, and a stronger livestock health system are central elements of the GTP II approach to increased livestock production and productivity. As in the case of initiatives focused on increased
crop production, private sector investment in commercial livestock enterprises are envisaged, as is the strengthening of systems to allow certification for and to ensure compliance of Ethiopian livestock products to international standards. Finally, GTP II has specifically planned for measures to reduce GHG emissions from the sub-sector.

iii. Reduced degradation and improved productivity of natural resources: Watershed development, irrigation development, forestry development (including agro-forestry) and bio- diversity conservation are the main elements of the GTP II interventions working towards this strategic objective.

iv. Enhanced food security at national and household level: Initiatives that contribute to enhanced food security are a continuation from GTP I. They comprise strengthening disaster prevention and response ability as well as ensuring adequate and timely transfers and promoting resilience among chronically food insecure households. The GTP II also seeks to address issues of nutrition in a more systematic way. In addition to chronically food insecure households, the GTP II identifies pastoralists and agro-pastoralists as requiring specific support.

GTP II Transformation Agenda: Areas of Focus